Acne Vulgaris

Acne is a skin condition that causes whiteheads, blackheads, and inflamed red growth (papules, pustules, and cysts) to form. This growth is usually called acne or acne. Acne vulgaris (acne cystic or) is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea (red scaly skin), comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules (pinheads), pustules (pimples), nodules (large papules) and possibly scarring. Acne affects most of the skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles. This area covers the face, upper chest, and back. Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in the form of inflammation. Lesions caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and associated sebaceous glands, changes that require androgen stimulation.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects 60-70% of Americans at some time during their lives. Twenty percent will have severe acne, which results in physical and mental scarring permanently. Acne vulgaris is the most common American disease and is characterized by inflammation, open or closed comedones and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. Acne vulgaris affects the areas of skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include the face, upper chest, and back.

Acne most often occurs during adolescence, and frequently continues into adulthood. In adolescence, acne is usually caused by an increase in testosterone, which the people of both sexes increase during puberty For most people, acne is reduced from time to time and tend to disappear. Or at least decrease, after one reaches one's early twenties. There is, however, there is no way to predict how long it will take to disappear entirely, and some individuals will carry this condition well into their thirties, forties, and so on.
Several large nodules and cysts previously referred to the term nodulocystic has been used to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne. Cysts or boils that accompany cystic acne, can appear on the buttocks, groin, and armpit area, and everywhere the sweat collects in the channel of hair follicles and sweat. Cystic acne affects deeper skin tissue than common acne.

Apart from scarring, its main effects are psychological, such as reduced self-confidence and depression in very extreme cases, or suicide. Acne usually appears during adolescence, when people already tend to be most socially insecure. Early and aggressive treatment because it is advocated by some to reduce the overall long term impact for the individual.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin, called pores, become clogged. Each pore opening into the follicle, which contains a hair and oil glands. These oil glands help lubricate the skin and help lift the old skin cells. When glands produce too much oil, pores can become clogged. Dirt, debris, bacteria, and inflammatory cells build up. This blockage is called a plug or comedone.

The top of the plug may be white (whitehead) or dark (blackhead). If the plug breaks open, causing the material in the swollen and red bumps to form. If the inflammation in your skin, pimples may enlarge to form firm, painful cysts.

Acne is a problem of swelling and inflammation, rather than the problems caused by bacteria. Acne is most common in adolescents, but can occur at any age, even in infants. Three out of four teenagers have acne a few. Hormonal changes may cause increased oil on the skin. However, people in their 30s and 40s may also have acne.

Acne tends to run in families and can be triggered by hormonal changes associated with menstrual periods, pregnancy, birth control pills, or stress.

Greasy or oily cosmetic and hair products. Certain drugs (such as steroids, testosterone, estrogen, and phenytoin). High levels of humidity and sweating.

Despite the popular belief that chocolate, nuts, and oily foods cause acne, the study did not confirm this idea. Diets high in refined sugar may be associated with acne, though.

Acne usually appears on the face and shoulders, but can also occur on the trunk, arms, legs, and buttocks.


    Crusting of the skin bumps


    Papules (small red bumps)


    Redness around the skin eruptions

    Grate the skin


Own treatment of acne

Steps you can take to help your acne:

Clean your skin gently with mild soap, make your skin dry (such as Dove, Neutrogena, Cetaphil, CeraVe, or Basic). Remove all dirt or make-up. Wash once or twice a day, including after exercising. However, avoid rubbing or repeated skin washing.

Shampoo your hair daily, especially if oily. Comb or pull your hair back to keep hair off your face.

What NOT to do:
Try not to squeeze, scratch, pick up, or rub the pimples. Although it may be tempting to do this, can cause skin infections and scarring.
Avoid wearing a tight headband, baseball caps and other hats
Avoid touching face with hands or fingers.
Avoid greasy cosmetics or creams. Remove make-up at night. Look for water-based or "noncomedogenic" formula. Noncomedogenic products have been tested and proven to not clog pores and cause acne.

If these steps do not clear up the stains, try over-the-counter acne medications. You apply the product directly to your skin.

    They may contain benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid.

    They work by killing bacteria, drying of skin oil, or cause the top layer of your skin peel.

    They can cause redness or flaking skin.

A small amount of sun exposure may improve acne a bit, but mostly just hide the acne. However, too much exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays is not recommended because it increases the risk of skin cancer.


If the acne is still a problem, health care providers can prescribe stronger medications and discuss other options with you.

Antibiotics may help some people with acne:

    Oral antibiotics (taken) such as tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin

    Topical antibiotics (applied to the skin) such as clindamycin, erythromycin, or dapsone

Cream or gel applied to the skin may be prescribed:

    Retinoic acid cream or gel (tretinoin, Retin-A)
    Prescription formulas of benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid
    Topical azelaic acid

For women that acne is caused or exacerbated by hormones:

    A pill called spironolactone can help
    Birth control pills can help in some cases, although they can make acne worse

Minor procedures or treatments can also help:

    A laser procedure called photodynamic therapy
    Your doctor may also suggest chemical skin peeling, removal of scars by dermabrasion, or removal, drainage, or a cyst with cortisone injection

People who have cystic acne and scarring can try a medicine called isotretinoin (Accutane). You will be watched closely while taking this drug because of side effects.

Pregnant women should NOT take Accutane, as it causes severe birth defects. Women taking Accutane should use two forms of birth control before starting medications and enroll in the program iPledge. Your doctor will follow you on this medication and you will have regular blood tests.
Expectations (prognosis)

Acne usually goes away after adolescence, but can take place in middle age. This condition often responds well to treatment after 6-8 weeks, but may be lit from time to time.

Scarring may occur if severe acne is left untreated. Some people, especially teenagers, can become very depressed if acne is not addressed.
Calling your health care provider

Contact your doctor or dermatologist if:

    Act of self-care and over-the-counter medicines do not help after a few months

    Your acne worse (for example, you have lots of redness around the pimples or you have cysts)

    Your acne is getting worse

    You develop acne marks as you clean up

Contact your baby's health care provider if your baby has acne that does not resolve itself within 3 months.